Marika Holland
Senior Scientist

Research Intrests

My research interests are related to the role of sea ice and polar regions in the climate system, including ice/ocean/atmosphere feedback mechanisms, high latitude climate variability, and abrupt climate change. I am also interested in coupled climate modeling and the improvement of sea ice models for climate simulations.



Clemens-Sewall, D., M.M. Smith, M.M. Holland, C. Polashenski, and D. Perovich, 2022: Snow redistribution onto young sea ice: Observations and implications for climate models. Elementa, submitted.

Light, B., M.M. Smith, D.K. Perovich, M.A. Webster, M. Holland, F. Linhardt, I.A. Raphael, D. Clemens-Sewall, A. MacFarlane, P. Anhaus, D. Bailey, 2022, Arctic sea ice albedo: spectral composition, spatial heterogeneity, and temporal evolution observed during the MOSAiC drift. Elementa, submitted.

Webster, M.A., M. Holland, N.C. Wright, S. Hendricks, N. Hutter, P. Itkin, B. Light, F. Linhardt, D.K. Perovich, I.A. Raphael, M.M. Smith, L. von Albedyll, and J. Zhang, 2022. Spatiotemporal evolution of melt ponds in the Arctic: MOSAiC observations and model results. Elementa, submitted.

J.E. Kay, P. DeRepentigny, M.M. Holland, D.A. Bailey, A.K. DuVivier, E. Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, C. Deser, A. Jahn, H. Singh, M.M. Smith, M.A. Webster, J. Edwards, S.-S. Lee, K.B. Rodgers, and N. Rosenbloom, 2022, Less surface sea ice melt in the CESM2 improves Arctic sea ice simulation with minimal non-polar climate impacts. J. Advances in Modeling Earth Systems., submitted.

P. DeRepentigny, A. Jahn, M.M. Holland, J. Fasullo, J-F. Lamarque, C. Hannay, M. Mills, D.A. Bailey, S. Tilmes, and A. Barrett, 2022, Enhanced early 21st century Arctic sea ice loss due to CMIP6 biomass burning emissions. Science Advances, submitted.



Holland, M.M., and E.C. Hunke, 2022. A review of sea ice climate predictability in large scale earth system models. Oceanography, accepted.

Smith, M.M., B. Light, A.R. Macfarlane, D.K. Perovich, M.M. Holland, and M.D. Shupe,2022, Sensitivity of the Arctic sea ice cover to the summer surface scattering layer. Geophys. Res. Lett, accepted.

Landrum, L.L. and M.M. Holland, 2022, Influence of changing sea ice and snoot thicknesses on simulated Arctic winter heat fluxes. The Cryosphere, in press.

Jenouvrier, S., M.C. Long, C.F.D. Coste, M.M. Holland, M. Gamelon, N.G. Yoccoz, B.-E. Saether, 2022. Detecting climate signals in populations across life histories. Global Change Biology,

M. Smith, M.M. Holland, and B. Light, 2021, Arctic sea ice sensitivity to lateral melting representation in a coupled climate model. The Cryosphere, 16, 419-434,


Vavrus, S.J. and M.M. Holland, 2021. When will the Arctic Ocean become ice-free? Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 53:217-218. doi:10.1080/15230430.2021.1941578.

Polvani, L.M., A. Banerjee, R. Chemke, E.W. Doddridge, D. Ferreira, A. Gnanadesikan, M. Holland, Y. Kostov, J. Marshall, W.J.M. Seviour, S. Solomon, D.W. Waugh, 2021, Interannual SAM modulation of Antarctic sea ice extent does not account for its long-term tremds, pointing to a limited role for ozone depletion. Geophys. Res. Lett., 48,

Holland, M.M., and L. Landrum, 2021, The emergence and transient nature of Arctic amplification in coupled climate models. Frontiers,

Holland, M.M., D. Clemens-Sewall, L. Landrum, B. Light, D. Perovich, C. Polashenski, M. Smith and M. Webster , 2021, The influence of snow on sea ice as assessed from simulations of CESM2.The Cryosphere, 15, 4981-4998,

S. Jenouvrier, J. Che-Castaldo, S. Wolf, M. Holland, S. Labrousse, M. LaRue, B. Wienecke, P. Fretwell, C. Barbraud, N. Greenwald, J. Stroeve, and P.N. Trathan, 2021, The call of the emperor penguin: Legal responses to species threatened by climate change. Global Change Biology, 27, 5008-5029,

A.K. DuVivier, M.M. Holland, L. Landrum, H.A. Singh, D.A. Bailey, and E.A. Maroon, 2021, Impacts of sea ice mushy thermodynamics in the Antarctic on the coupled earth system. Geophys. Res. Lett, 48,

Zanowski, H., A. Jahn, M.M. Holland, 2021, Arctic Freshwater in CMIP6: Declining Sea Ice, Increasing Ocean Storage and Export J. Geophys. Res-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2020JC016930.

Bonan, D., F. Lehner, M.M. Holland, 2020, Partitioning uncertainty in projections of Arctic sea ice. Environmental Research Letters, 16, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/abe0ec.


Holland, M.M., M. Bushuk, A. Jahn, and A. Roberts (2020) Integrating models and observations to better predict a changing Arctic sea ice cover. NOAA Artic Report Card, doi:10.25923/bx13-ja71.

Webster M. A., DuVivier A. K., Holland M. M., Bailey D. A. (2020) Snow on Arctic sea ice in a warming climate as simulated in CESM2. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, doi:10.1029/2020JC016308.

Bacmeister J. T., Hannay C., Medeiros B., Gettelman A., Neale R., Fredriksen H. B., Lipscomb W. H., Simpson I., Bailey D. A., Holland M., Lindsay K., Otto-Bliesner B. (2020). CO2 increase experiments using the Community Earth System Model (CESM): Relationship to climate sensitivity and comparison of CESM1 to CESM2. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, doi:10.1029/2020MS002120

Singh H. K. A., Landrum L., Holland M. M., Bailey, D.A., and DuVivier, A.K. (2020) An Overview of Antarctic Sea Ice in CESM2 Part I: : Analysis of the Seasonal Cycle in the context of sea ice thermodynamics and coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice processes. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, doi:10.1029/2020MS002143.

Raphael M. N., Handcock M. S., Holland M. M., Landrum L. L. (2020). An assessment of the temporal variability in the annual cycle of daily Antarctic sea ice in the NCAR Community Earth System Model, Version 2: A comparison of the historical runs with observations. JGR: Oceans, doi:10.1029/2020JC016459.

Bailey D. A., Holland M. M., DuVivier A. K., Hunke E. C., Turner A. K., 2020, Impact of a New Sea Ice Thermodynamic Formulation in the CESM2 sea ice component. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, doi:10.1029/2020MS002154.

Landrum, L., and M.M. Holland, 2020, Extremes becoming routine in an emerging New Arctic, Nature Climate Change,

DuVivier, A. K., Holland, M. M., Kay, J. E., Tilmes, S., Gettelman, A., Bailey, D. A., 2019, Arctic and Antarctic sea ice state in the Community Earth System Model Version 2. JGR: Oceans,

DeRepentigny, P., Jahn, A., Holland, M. M., Smith, A., 2020, Arctic Sea Ice in Two Configurations of the Community Earth System Model Version 2 (CESM2) During the 20th and 21st Centuries. JGR: Oceans,

Molnar, P.K., C.M. Bitz, M.M. Holland, J.E. Kay, S.R. Penk, and S.C. Amstrup, 2020, Fasting season length sets temporal limits for global polar bear persistence, Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/s41558-020-0818-9.

Notz, D., J. Dorr, D.A. Bailey, E. Blockley, M. Bushuk, J. Boldingh Debernard, E. Dekker, P. DeRepentigny, D. Docquier, N.S. Fuckar, J.C. Fyfe, A. Jahn, M. Holland, E. Hunke, D. Iovino, N. Khosravi, F. Massonnet, G. Madec, S. O'Farrell, A. Petty, A. Rana, L. Roach, E. Rosenblum, C. Rousset, T. Semmler, J. Stroeve, B. Tremblay, T. Toyoda, H. Tsujino, M. Vancoppenolle, 2020, Arctic sea ice in CMIP6, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi: 10.1029/2019GL086749.

Danabasoglu, G., Lamarque, J. -F., Bachmeister, J., Bailey, D. A., DuVivier, A. K., Edwards, J., Emmons, L. K., Fasullo, J., Garcia, R., Gettelman, A., Hannay, C., Holland, M. M., Large, W. G., Lawrence, D. M., Lenaerts, J. T. M., Lindsay, K., Lipscomb, W. H., Mills, M. J., Neale, R., Oleson, K. W., Otto-Bliesner, B., Phillips, A. S., Sacks, W., Tilmes, S., van Kampenhout, L., Vertenstein, M., Bertini, A., Dennis, J., Deser, C., Fischer, C., Fox-Kember, B., Kay, J. E., Kinnison, D., Kushner, P. J., Long, M. C., Mickelson, S., Moore, J. K., Nienhouse, E., Polvani, L., Rasch, P. J., Strand, W. G., 2020, The Community Earth System Model version 2 (CESM2). Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, doi:/10.1029/2019MS001916

DuVivier, A.K., P. DeRepentigny, M.M. Holland, M. Webster, J.E. Kay, and D. Perovich, 2020, Going with the floe: Tracking CESM Large-Ensemble sea ice in the Arctic provides context for ship-based observations, The Cryosphere, doi:10.5194/tc-14-1259-2020.


Jenouvrier,S., M. Holland, D. Iles, S. Labrousse, L. Landrum, J. Garnier, H. Caswell, H. Weimerskirch, M. LaRue, R. Ji, C. Barbraud, 2019, The Paris Agreement objectives will likely halt future declines of emperor penguins, Global Change Biology, doi:10.1111/gcb.14864.

Mioduszewski, J.R., S. Vavrus, M. Wang, M. Holland, and L. Landrum, 2019: Past and future interannual variability of Arctic sea ice in coupled climate models, The Crysophere, doi:10.5194/tc-13-113-2019.

Gerland, S., D. Barber, W. Meier, C.J. Mundy, M. Holland, S. Kern, Z. Li, C. Michel, D.K. Perovich, T. Takeshi, 2019: Essential gaps and uncertainties in the understanding of the roles and functions of Arctic sea ice. Env. Res. Letters, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ab09b3

Moon, T., I. Overeem, M. Druckenmiller, M. Holland, H. Huntington, G. Kling, A.L. Lovecraft, G. Miller, T. Scambos, C. Schadel, E.A.G. Schuur, E. Trochim, F. Wiese, D. Williams, G. Wong, 2019: The expanding footprint of rapid Arctic change. Earth Futures, doi:10.1029/2018EF001088.

Holland, M.M., L. Landrum, D. Bailey, and S.J. Vavrus, 2019: Changing seasonal predictability of Arctic summer sea ice area in a warming climate. J. Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0034.1

Meehl, G.A., J.M. Arblaster, C.T.Y. Chung, M.M. Holland, A. DuVivier, L. Thompson, D. Yang, and C.M. Bitz, 2018: Sustained ocean changes contributed to sudden Antarctic sea ice retreat in late 2016. Nature Comm., 10:14, doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07865-9.

Huang Y., X. Dong, D.A. Bailey, M.M. Holland, B. Xi, A.K. DuVivier, J.E. Kay, L. Landrum, Y. Deng, 2019: Thicker clouds and accelerated Arctic sea ice decline: The atmosphere-sea ice interactions in spring, Geophys. Res. Lett., accepted.


Meehl, G.A., C.T.Y. Chung, J.M. Arblaster, M.M. Holland, and C.M. Bitz, 2018: Tropical decadal variability and the rate of Arctic sea ice retreat. Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2018GL079989.

Raphael, M.N., M.M. Holland, L. Landrum, W.R. Hobbs, 2018: Links between the Amundsen Sea Low and sea ice in the Ross Sea: Seasonal and interannual relationships. Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-018-4258-4.

Webster, M., S. Gerland, M. Holland, E. Hunke, R. Kwok, O. Lecomte, R. Massom, D. Perovich, and M. Sturm, 2018: Snow in the changing sea ice systems. Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0286-7.

Holland, M.M., L. Landrum, M.N. Raphael, and R. Kwok, 2018: The regional, seasonal, and lagged influence of the Amundsen Sea Low on Antarctic sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2018GL080140.

Petty, A.A., M.M. Holland, D.A. Bailey, N.T. Kurtz, 2018: Warm Arctic, increased winter sea-ice growth? Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2018GL079223.

Day, J.J., M.M. Holland, and K.I. Hodges, 2018: Seasonal differences in the response of Arctic cyclones to climate change in CESM1, Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3767-x.


Bertino, L. and M.M. Holland, 2017: Coupled ice-ocean modeling and prediction, J. Marine Res., 75, 839-875.

Landrum, L., M.M. Holland, M.N. Raphael, and L.M. Polvani, 2017: Stratospheric ozone depletion: An unlikely driver of the regional trends in Antarctic sea ice in austral fall in the late 20th century, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1002/2017GL075618.

Holland, M.M. and D. Perovich, 2017: Sea ice summer camp: Bringing together sea ice modelers and observers to advance polar science, BAMS, 98:10, 2057-2059, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0229.1.

Holland, M.M., L. Landrum, M. Raphael, S. Stammerjohn, 2017: Springtime winds drive Ross Sea ice variability and change in the following Autumn, Nature Comm., 8:731, doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00820-0.

Che-Castaldo, C., et al., 2017: Spatial aggregation reveals robust dynamics despite stochastic noise in pan-Antarctic analysis of Adelie penguin abundance, Nature Comm., 8, doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00890-0.

Holland, M.M., L. Landrum, Y. Kostov, and J. Marshall, 2017: Sensitivity of Antarctic sea ice to the Southern Annular Mode in coupled climate models,Climate Dynamics, 49, doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3424-9 .


Kostov, Y., J. Marshall, U. Hausmann, K.C. Armour, D. Ferreira, and M. Holland, 2016: Fast and slow responses of Southern Ocean sea surface temperature to SAM in coupled climate models, Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3162-z.

Notz, D. et al., 2016: Sea Ice Model Intercomparison Project (SIMIP): Understanding sea ice through climate-model simulations, Geophys. Model Develop., 9, 3427-3446, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-3427-2016.

Jahn, A., J.E. Kay, M.M. Holland, and D.M. Hall, 2016: How predictable is the timing of a summer ice-free Arctic?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, doi:10.1002/2016GL070067.

England, M., L. Polvani, K. Smith, L. Landrum, M. Holland, 2016: Robust response of the Amundsen Sea Low to stratospheric ozone depletion, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 8207-8213, doi:10.1002/2016GL070055.

Jung, T., et al., 2016: Advancing polar prediction capabilities on daily to seasonal time scales, BAMS, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00246.1.

Lique, C., M.M. Holland, Y.B. Dibike, D.M. Lawrence, and J.A. Screen, 2016: Modeling the Arctic freshwater system and its integration in the global system: Lessons learned and future challenges, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeosci., 121, doi:10.1002/2015JG003120.


Vihma, T., J. Screen, M. Tjernstrom, B. Newton, X Zhang, V. Popova, C. Deser M. Holland, and T. Prowse, The atmospheric role in the Arctic water cycle: processes, past and future change, and their impacts, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeosci., 121, doi:10.1002/2015JG003132.

Prowse, T., A. Bring, J.M. Karlsson, E. Carmack, M. Holland, A. Instanes, T. Vihma, F.J. Wrona, 2015: Arctic Freshwater Synthesis: Summary of key emerging issues, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeosci., 120, 1887-1893, doi:10.1002/2015JG003128.

Long, M.C., K. Lindsay, and M.M. Holland, 2015: Modeling photosynthesis in partially ice covered waters, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., doi:10.1002/2015MS000436, in press.

Holland, M.M. and L. Landrum, 2015: Factors affecting projected Arctic surface shortwave heating and albedo change in coupled climate models, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 373:20140162, doi:10.1098/rsta.2014.0162.

Kay, J.E. et al., 2015: The community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble Project: A community resource for studying climate change in the presence of climate variability, BAMS, in press. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00255.1.

Light, B., S. Dickinson, D.K. Perovich, and M.M. Holland, 2015: Evolution of summer Arctic sea ice albedo in CCSM4 simulations: Episodic summer snowfall and frozen summers, J. Geophys. Res., 120(1), 284-303, doi:10.1002/2014JC010149.


Wang, S., D. Bailey, K. Lindsay, J.K. Moore, and M. Holland, 2014: Impact of sea ice on the marine iron cycle and phytoplankton productivity., Biogeosciences, 11, 4713-4731, doi:10.5194/bg-11-4713-2014.

Jenouvrier, S., M. Holland, J. Stroeve, M. Serreze, C. Barbraud, H. Weimerskirch, and H. Caswell, 2014: Projected continent-wide declines of the emperor penguin under climate change, Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/nclimate2280.

Tilmes, S., A. Jahn, J.E. Kay, M.M. Holland, and J.-F. Lamarque, 2014: Can regional climate engineering save the summer Arctic sea-ice?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2013GL058731.


Blazey, B.A., M.M. Holland, and E.C. Hunke, 2013: Arctic Ocean sea ice snow depth evaluation and bias sensitivity in CCSM., The Cryosphere, 7, 1887-1900.

Holland, M.M., E. Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, J. Kay, and S. Vavrus, 2013: Initial-value predictability of Antarctic sea ice in the Community Climate System Model 3, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1002/grl.50410.

Jahn, A. and M.M. Holland, 2013: Implications of Arctic sea ice changes for North Atlantic deep convection and the meridional overturning circulation in CCSM4-CMIP5 simulations, Geophys. Res. Lett. 40,1206-1211, doi:0.1002/grl.50183.

Hurrell, J. W., M. M. Holland, S. Ghan, J. -F. Lamarque, D. Lawrence, W. H. Lipscomb, N. Mahowald, D. Marsh, P. Rasch, D. Bader, W. D. Collins, P. R. Gent, J. J. Hack, J. Kiehl, P. Kushner, W. G. Large, S. Marshall, S. Vavrus, and M. Vertenstein, 2013: The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00121.1.


Massonnet, F., T. Fichefet, H. Goosse, C.M. Bitz, G. Philippon-Berthier, M.M. Holland, and P.-Y. Barriat, 2012: Constraining projections of summer Arctic sea ice. The Cryosphere, doi:10.5194/tc-6-1383-2012.

Goldenson, N., S.J. Doherty, C.M. Bitz, M.M. Holland, B. Light, and A.J. Conley, 2012: Arctic climate response to forcing from light-absorbing particles in snow and sea ice in CESM. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 5341-5388, doi:10.5194/acpd-12-5341-2012.

Kay, J.E., M.M. Holland, C. Bitz, E. Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, A. Gettelman, A. Conley, and D. Bailey, 2012: The influence of local feedbacks and northward heat transport on the equilibrium Arctic climate response to increased greenhouse gas forcing in coupled climate models. J. Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00622.1

Stroeve, J.C., V. Kattsov, A.P. Barrett, M.C. Serreze, T. Pavlova, M.M. Holland, and W.N. Meier 2012: Trends in Arctic sea ice etent from CMIP5, CMIP3, and observations. Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2012GL052676.

Stroeve, J., M.C. Serreze, M.M. Holland, J. Kay, J. Maslanik, A.P. Barrett, 2012: The Arctic's rapidly shrinking sea ice cover: A research synthesis. Climatic Change, 110,1005-1027, doi:0.1007/s10584-011-0101-1.

Jenouvrier, S., M. Holland, J. Stroeve, C. Barbraud, H. Weimerskirch, M. Serreze, and H. Caswell, 2012: Effects of climate change on an emperor penguin population: Analysis of coupled demographic and climate models. Global Change Biology, 18(9), 2756-2770, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02744.x.

Vavrus, S.J., M.M. Holland, A. Jahn, D.A. Bailey, and B.A. Blazey, 2012: 21st-Century Arctic climate change in CCSM4. J. Climate, 25(8), 2696-2710, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00220.1

Jahn, A, K. Sterling, M.M. Holland, J.E. Kay, J.A. Maslanik, C.M. Bitz, D.A. Bailey, J. Stroeve, E.C. Hunke, W.H. Lipscomb and D. Pollak, 2012: Late 20th century simulation of Arctic sea ice and ocean properties in CCSM. J. Climate, 25(5), 1431-1452. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00201.1

Landrum, L., M.M. Holland, D. Schneider, and E. Hunke, 2012: Antarctic sea ice variability and change in CCSM4. J. Climate, 25(14), 4817-4838. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00289.1

Bitz, C.M., K.M. Shell, P.R. Gent, D. Bailey, G. Danabasoglu, K.C. Armour, M.M. Holland and J.T. Kiehl, 2012: Climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model Version 4. J. Climate, 25, 3053-3070, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00290.1.

Holland, M.M., D.A. Bailey, B.P. Briegleb, B. Light, and E. Hunke, 2012: Improved sea ice shortwave radiation physics in CCSM4: The impact of melt ponds and black carbon. J. Climate, 25 (5), 1413-1430. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00078.1

Miller, G.H., A. Geirsdottir, Y. Zhong, D.J. Larsen, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, M.M. Holland, D.A. Bailey, K.A. Refsnider, S.J. Lehman, J.R. Southon, C. Anderson, H. Bjornsson, T. Thordarson, 2012: Abrupt onset of the Little Ice Age triggered by volcanism and sustained by sea-ice/ocean feedbacks. Geophys. Res. Lett, 39 (2), doi:10.1029/2011GL050168.

Bitz, C.M., J.K. Ridley, M.M. Holland, and H. Cattle, 2012: 20th and 21st century Arctic Climate in global climate models. In Arctic Climate Change - The ACSYS Decade and Beyond, Edited by P. Lemke and H.-W. Jacobi. Springer, DOI:10.1007/978-94-007-2027-5_11, p. 405-426.


Fox-Kemper, B., G. Danabasoglu, R. Ferrari, S.M. Griffies, R.W. Hallberg, M.M. Holland, M.E. Maltrud, S. Peacock, and B.L. Samuels, 2011: Parameterization of mixed layer eddies. III: Implementation and impact in global ocean climate simulations. Ocean Modelling, 61-78,doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.09.002..

Gent, P.R., G. Danabasoglu, L.J. Donner, M.M. Holland, E.C. Hunke, S.R. Jayne D.M. Lawrence, R.B. Neale, P.J. Rasch, M. Vertenstein, P.H. Worley, Z.-L. Yang, and M. Zhang, 2011: The Community Climate System Model, version 4. J. Climate, 24 (19), 4973-4991.

Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E., C.M. Bitz, and M.M. Holland, 2011: Influence of initial conditions and climate forcing on predicting Arctic sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18503, doi:10.1029/2011GL048807.

Holland, M.M., and J. Stroeve, 2011: Changing seasonal sea ice predictor relationships in a changing Arctic climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18501, doi:10.1029/2011GL049303.

Kay, J.E., M.M. Holland, and A. Jahn, 2011: Inter-annual to multi-decadal Arctic sea ice extent trends in a warming world. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L15708, doi:10.1029/2011GL048008.

Zhong, Y., G.H. Miller, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, C.M. Ammann, M.M. Holland D.A. Bailey, D.P. Schneider, and A. Geirsdottir, 2011: Centennial-scale climate change from decadally-paced explosive volcanism: A coupled sea ice-ocean mechanism. Climate Dynamics, DOI:10.1007/s00382-010-0967-z .

Vavrus, S., M.M. Holland, M.M., and D.A. Bailey, 2011: The role of Arctic clouds during intervals of rapid sea ice loss, Climate Dyn, 36, 1475-1489.

Holland, M.M., D.A. Bailey, and S. Vavrus, 2011: Inherent sea ice predictability in the rapidly changing Arctic environment of the Community Climate System Model, version 3, Climate Dyn, 36, 1239-1253, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0792-4.


Holland, M.M., 2010: Arctic sea ice and the potential for abrupt loss, In Climate Dynamics: Why does climate vary? Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 189, edited by D-Z Sun and F. Bryan, pp. 181-192, AGU, Washington, D. C.

Rawlins, M.M., M. Steele, M.M. Holland et al., 2010: Analysis of the Arctic system for freshwater cycle intensification: Observations and Expectations, J. Climate, 23, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3421.1.

Jahn, A., L.B. Trembaly, R. Newton, M.M. Holland, L.A. Mysak, and I.A. Dmitrenko 2010: A tracer study of the Arctic Ocean's liquid freshwater export variability, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C07015, doi:10.1029/2009JC005873.

Polyak, L., R.B. Alley, J.T. Andrews, J. Brigham-Grette, T.M. Cronin, D.A. Darby, A. Dyke, J.J. Fitzpatrick, S. Funder, M. Holland, A.E. Jennings, G.H. Miller, M. O'Regan, J. Savelle, M. Serreze, K. St. John, J.W.C. White, E. Wolff, 2010: History of sea ice in the Arctic, QSR, 29 (2010), 1757-1778.

Holland, M.M., M.C. Serreze, and J. Stroeve, 2010: The sea ice mass budget of the Arctic and its future change as simulated by coupled climate models, Climate Dynamics, 34 (2), doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0493-4.


Francis, J., D.M. White, J. Cassano, W. Gutowski, L. Hinzman, M. Holland, M. Steele, and C. Vorosmarty, 2009: An Arctic hydrologic system in transition: Feedbacks and impacts on terrestrial, marine, and human life, J. Geophys. Res., 114, G04019, doi:10.1029/2008JG000902.

Finnis, J, J. Cassano, M.M. Holland, M.C. Serreze, and P Uotila, 2009: Synoptically forced hydroclimatology of major Arctic watersheds in general circulation models, Part 1: the Mackenzie River Basin, Intl J. of Clim., 29 (9), 1226-1243.

Finnis, J, J. Cassano, M.M. Holland, and M.C. Serreze, 2009: Synoptically forced hydroclimatology of major Arctic watersheds in general circulation models, Part 2: Eurasian watersheds, Intl J. of Clim., 29 (9), 1244-1261.

Durner, G.M., D.C. Douglas, R.M. Nielsen, S.C. Amstrup, T.L McDonald I. Stirling, M. Mauritzen, E.W. Born, O. Wiig, E. DeWeaver, M.C. Serreze, S.E. Belikov, M.M. Holland, J. Maslanik, J. Aars, D.A. Bailey, and A.E. Derocher, 2009: Predicting the 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models, Ecological Monographs, 79(1), 25-58.

Jenouvrier, A., H. Caswell, C. Barbraud, M.M. Holland, J. Stroeve C.M. Hunter and H. Weimerskirch, 2009: Demographic models and IPCC climate projections predict the decline of an emperor penguin population, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., doi:10.1073/pnas.0806638106.

Serreze, M. C., A.P. Barrett, J.C. Stroeve, D.N. Kindig, and M.M. Holland, 2009: The emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification, The Cryosphere, 3, 11-19.


Holland, M.M., C.M. Bitz, B. Tremblay, D.A. Bailey, 2008: The role of natural versus forced change in future rapid summer Arctic ice loss, In Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 180, edited by E. T. DeWeaver, C. M. Bitz, and L.-B. Tremblay, pp. 133-150, AGU, Washington, D. C.

Merryfield, W.J., M.M. Holland, and A.H. Monahan, 2008: Multiple equilibria and abrupt transitions in Arctic summer sea ice extent, In Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 180, edited by E. T. DeWeaver, C. M. Bitz, and L.-B. Tremblay, pp. 151-174, AGU, Washington, D. C.

DeWeaver, E., E. Hunke, and M.M. Holland, 2008: Sensitivity of Arctic sea ice thickness to inter-model variations in surface energy budget simulation, In Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 180, edited by E. T. DeWeaver, C. M. Bitz, and L.-B. Tremblay, pp. 77-90, AGU, Washington, D. C.

Lawrence, D.M., A.G. Slater, R.A. Tomas, M.M. Holland, and C. Deser, 2008: Accelerated Arctic land warming and permafrost degradation during rapid sea ice loss, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L11506, doi:10.1029/2008GL033985.

Jochum, M., G. Danabasoglu, M. Holland, Y.-O. Kwon, and W.G. Large, 2008: Ocean viscosity and climate, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C06017, doi:10.1029/2007JC004515.

DeWeaver, E.T., E.C. Hunke, and M.M. Holland, 2008: Comment on "On the reliability of simulated Arctic sea ice in global climate models" by I. Eisenmann, N. Untersteiner, and J.S. Wettlaufer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L04501, doi:10.1029/2007GL031325.

Stroeve, J., M. Serreze, S. Drobot, S. Gearhead, M. Holland, J. Maslanik, W. Meier, and T. Scambos, 2008: Arctic sea ice plummets in 2007, EOS, 89, 2, 13-14.


Holland, M.M., J. Finnis, A. Barrett and M.C. Serreze, 2007: Projected changes in Arctic Ocean freshwater budgets, J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S55, doi:10.1029/2006JG000354.

Finnis, J., M.M. Holland, M.C. Serreze, and J.J. Cassano 2007: Response of Northern Hemisphere Extratropical Cyclone Activity and Associated Precipitation to Climate Change, as Represented by CCSM3. J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S55, doi:.

White, D., L Hinzman, L Alessa, J Cassano, M Chambers, K Falkner, J Francis W. Gutowski, M. Holland, M Holmes, H Huntington, D Kane, A Kliskey, C Lee J McClelland, B. Peterson, F Staneo, M Steele, R Woodgate, D Yang, K Yoshikawa, T Zhang, 2007: Changes and impacts in the Arctic freshwater system, J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S55, doi:

Stroeve, J., M.M. Holland, W. Meier, T. Scambos, and M.C. Serreze, 2007: Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Faster than Forecast, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L09501, doi: 10.1029/2007GL029703, 2007.

L.B. Tremblay, M.M. Holland, I.V. Gorodetskaya, and G.A. Schmidt, 2007: An Ice-Free Arctic? Opportunities for computational science, Journal of Computing in Science and Engineering, 9, 65-74.

Hunke, E.C. and M.M. Holland, 2007: Global atmospheric forcing data for Arctic ice-ocean modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 12, C04S14, doi:10.1029/2006JC003640.

Serreze, M.C., M.M. Holland, and J. Stroeve, 2007: Perspectives on the Arctic's shrinking sea-ice cover, Science, 315, 1533-1536.


Holland, M.M., C.M. Bitz, and B. Tremblay, 2006: Future abrupt reductions in the Summer Arctic sea ice, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23503, doi:10.1029/2006GL028024.

Holland, M.M., J. Finnis, and M.C. Serreze, 2006: Simulated Arctic Ocean freshwater budgets in the 20th and 21st centuries, J. Climate, 19, 6221-6242.

Holland, M.M., C.M. Bitz, E.C. Hunke. W.H. Lipscomb, and J.L. Schramm, 2006: Influence of the sea ice thickness distribution on polar climate in CCSM3, J. Climate, 19, 2398-2414.

Raphael, M. and M.M. Holland, 2006: Twentieth Century Simulation of the Southern Hemisphere in Coupled Models. Part I: Large scale Circulation Variability, Climate Dynamics, 26, 217-228.

Holland, M.M., and M. Raphael, 2006: Twentieth Century Simulation of the Southern Hemisphere in Coupled Models. Part II: Sea ice conditions and variability, Climate Dynamics, 26, 229-245.

Bitz, C.M., P.R. Gent, R.A. Woodgate, M.M. Holland, and R. Lindsay, 2006: The influence of sea ice on ocean heat uptake in response to increasing CO2. J. Climate, 19, 2437-2450.

Bony, S, R Colman, V.M. Kattsov, R.P. Allan, C.S. Bretherton, J Dufresne, A Hall, S Hallegatte, M.M. Holland, W Ingram, D.A. Randall, B.J. Soden, G Tselioudis, and M.J. Webb, 2006: How Well do we Understand Climate Change Feedback Processes?, J. Climate, 19, 3445-3482.

Hack, J.J., J.M. Caron, S.G. Yeager, K.W. Oleson, M.M. Holland, J.E. Truesdale, and P.J. Rasch, 2006: Simulation of the global hydrological cycle in the CCSM Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3): Mean Features. J. Climate, 19, 2199-2221.


Holland, M.M., C. M. Bitz, and E. Hunke, 2005: Mechanisms forcing an Antarctic dipole in simulated sea ice and surface ocean conditions, J Climate, 18, 2052-2066.

Bitz, C.M, M.M. Holland, E. Hunke, and R.E. Moritz, 2005: Maintenance of the sea-ice edge, J. Climate, 18, 2903-2921.

Goosse, H., and M.M. Holland, 2005: Mechanisms of interdecadal Arctic climate variability in the Community Climate System Model CCSM2, J Climate, 18, 3552-3570.

Overpeck, J.T., M. Sturm, J.A. Francis, D.K. Perovich, M.C. Serreze, R. Benner, E.C. Carmack, F.S. Chapin III, S.C. Gerlach, L.C. Hamilton, L.D. Hinzman, M.M. Holland, H.P. Huntington, J.R. Key, A.H. Lloyd, G.M. MacDonald, J. McFadden, D. Noone, T.D. Prowse, P. Schlosser, and C. Vorosmarty, 2005: Arctic system on trajectory to a new, seasonally ice-free state, EOS, 86:34, 309-316.


Holland, M.M. and C.M. Bitz, 2003: Polar amplification of climate change in coupled models, Clim. Dyn, 21,221-232, doi:00382-003-0332-6.

Holland, M.M., 2003: The North Atlantic Oscillation in the CCSM2 and its influence on Arctic climate variability, J. Climate, 16, 2767-2781.

Holland, M.M., 2003: An improved single-column model representation of ocean mixing associated with summertime leads - results from a SHEBA case study, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 10.1029/2002JC001557.


Deser, C., M.M. Holland, G. Reverdin, M.S. Timlin, 2001: Decadal variations in Labrador Sea ice cover and North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, J. Geophys. Res., 107 (C5), 10.1029/2000JC000683.


Bitz, C.M., M.M. Holland, M. Eby, and A.J. Weaver, 2001: Simulating the ice-thickness distribution in a coupled climate model, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 2441-2463.

Holland, M.M, C.M. Bitz, and A.J. Weaver, 2001: The influence of sea ice physics on simulations of climate change, J. Geophys. Res., accepted.

Holland, M.M, C.M. Bitz, M. Eby, and A.J. Weaver, 2001: The role of ice-ocean interactions in the variability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, J. Climate, 14, 656-675. PDF File (627 KB)


Holland, M.M, A.J. Brasket and A.J. Weaver, 2000: The impact of rising atmospheric CO2 levels on simulated sea ice induced thermohaline circulation variability, Geophys. Res. Letters, 10, 1519-1522. PDF File (215 KB)


Holland, M.M, and J.A. Curry, 1999: The role of physical processes in determining the interdecadal variability of Central Arctic sea ice, J. Climate, 12, 3319-3330.

Weaver, A.J., C.M. Bitz, A.F. Fanning, and M.M. Holland, 1999: Thermohaline circulation: High latitude phenomena and the difference between the Pacific and Atlantic, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 27, 231-285.


Schramm, J.L., Holland, M.M., Curry, J.A., and E.E. Ebert, 1997: Modeling the thermodynamics of a sea ice thickness distribution 1. Sensitivity to ice thickness resolution, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 23,079-23,091.

Holland, M.M., Curry J.A., and J.L. Schramm, 1997: Modeling the thermodynamics of a sea ice thickness distribution 2. Sea ice/ocean interactions, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 23,093-23,107.

Holland, M.M., Schramm, J.L., and J.A. Curry, 1997: Thermodynamic feedback processes in a single-column sea-ice-ocean model, Annals of Glaciology, 25, 327-332.

Schramm, J.L., Holland, M.M., and J.A. Curry, 1997: The effects of snowfall on a snow-ice-thickness distribution, Annals of Glaciology, 25, 287-291.

Arbetter, T.E., Curry, J.A., Holland, M.M., and J.A. Maslanik, 1997: Response of sea-ice models to perturbations in surface heat flux, Annals of Glaciology, 25, 193-197.


Holland, W.R., Capotondi, A., and M.M. Holland, 1995: Advances in ocean modeling for climate change research, Reviews of Geophys., Supplement, 1411-1424.

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